🍉 Blog 9

1. What is the purpose of metadata? What are the categories of metadata?
Meta-data is definitional data that provides information about or documentation of other data managed within an application or environment.  Some of the categories of metadata are
– Descriptive metadata
– Structural metadata
– Administrative metadata

References: www.niso.org/publications/press/UnderstandingMetadata.pdfSection 9 Metadata – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

2. What is a controlled vocabulary? How is a controlled vocabulary beneficial to a web site and/or organisation?
A controlled vocabulary is a set of equivalent terms in the forms of a synonym ring


The purpose of controlled vocabularies is to organize information for it to provide terminology to catalog and retrieve information. They also promote consistency in preferred terms and the assignment of the same terms to similar content

Reference: Section 9.2 Controlled Vocabularies – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web


3. List the four main types of controlled vocabularies.
– Synonym Rings
– Authority Files
– Classification Schemas
– Thesauri

Reference: Section 9.2 Controlled Vocabularies – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

4. What is the purpose of a synonym ring? Give examples of terms that would be considered equivalent under a synonym ring. What might happened during a search if you didn’t use a synonym ring? (Give an example.)
The synonym ring connects words that have a equivalent definition for the purpose of retrieval. Words used in synonym ring do not always have to be synonyms


If we conducted a search without a synonym ring, for example we search for “Kitchenaid” in a site without synonym rings we have no results, but if we search “Kitchen aid” we have results. Even though both searches were searching the same item only one of the searches returned results

Reference: Section 9.2 Controlled Vocabularies – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

5. What is the purpose of an authority file? Describe how an authority file can educate users during search.
An authority file is a list of prefered terms or acceptable values. Authority files do not include variants or synonyms. They are typically used in libraries and in government agencies  to define the proper names for a set of entities within a limited domain. Authority rings can also be classified as synonym rings were one term has been defined as the preferred term or acceptable value.
Authority files can educate the users during their searches by helping them to correct mistakes in spelling

Reference: Section 9.2 Controlled Vocabularies – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

6. Create an authority file for abbreviations of the Australian states and territories (Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, Northern Territory).
– QLD Queensland
– NSW New South Wales
– SA South Australia
– ACT Australian Capital Territories
– VIC Victoria
– WA Western Australia
– NT Northern Territory

7. Describe the purpose of a classification scheme. How does a web site benefit from a classification scheme?
A classification schema is used to mean a hierarchical arrangement of preferred terms (taxonomy). One of the benefits of the classification schemas is that they are not tied to a single view or instance.

Reference: Section 9.2 Controlled Vocabularies – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

8. Create a classification scheme for several major dog breeds based on whether the dog is toy, small, medium, large, or giant.
– Maltese
– Yorkie
– Pug
– Fox terrier
– Beagle
– Bichon Frise
– Great Dane
– German Shepard
– St Bernard
– Dernese Mtn dog

9. What is the Library of Congress Classification Scheme (LCC)?
LCC is a classification scheme that was first developed in the late 19th century and was used to help organise and arrange the book collections of the Library of Congress.

Reference: www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/lcc.html

10. What is the Machine Readable Catalogue (MARC) standards?
MARC are a set of digital formats for the description of items  in a library that have been catalogued

Reference: www.ibiblio.org/msmckoy/marc2.html

11. What topics would the following codes retrieve under Dewey Decimal Classification:
a. 025.524
Information search & retrieval

b. 787.87092
Stringed instruments (Chordophones)

c. 641.623
Food & drink

d. 634.772
Orchards, fruits, forestry

e. 522.29
Techniques, equipment, materials

Reference: www.questionpoint.org/crs/html/help/fi/ask/ask_map_ddctolcc.html

12. Describe the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.
DCMI supports shared innovation in metadata design and best practices across a broad range of purposes and business models. DCMI achieves this by:
– Managing long term curation and development of DCMI
– Managing ongoing discussion of current DCMI-wide work themes
– Setting up and managing international and regional events
– Curation and open availability of meeting assets including proceedings, project reports and meeting minutes;
– Creation and delivery of training resources in metadata best practices including tutorials, webinars and workshops
– Coordinating the global community of DCMI volunteers.

Reference: dublincore.org/about-us/

13. Describe the purpose of the AGLS Metadata Standard.

AGLS is a set of descriptive properties which purpose is to improve the visibility and availability of online resources.

Reference: www.agls.gov.au

14. What is meant by the term “bubble-up folksonomy”?

15. What are the differences between taxonomy and folksonomy?
Both taxonomy and folksonomy are used in web tags, they are tags that describe data. But the difference with the two of them lies in who adds the tags to the data.
These tags are added by the content creator or author. A good example of taxonomy is most blogs.
These tags are added by the consumer or the reader. An example of these types of tags are that of Tumblr, where a user can add their own tags to post


16. What is the purpose of thesauri? How is a thesaurus beneficial to searching on a web site?

17. Define the following terms and describe how they are used by thesauri:
a. Equivalence relationship
used to connect preferred terms and with their variants. Important note to state is that equivalence is a broader term than a synonym

b. Hierarchical relationship
divides the information space into categories and subcategories, relating broader and narrower concepts through the parent-child relationship

c. Associative relationship
semantic connections that have not been captured by the equivalence or hierarchical relationships

Reference: Section 9.7 Semantic Relationships – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

18. In terms of thesauri, provide definitions for the following:
a. Preferred Term
Preferred Terms also known as the accepted term, acceptable value, subject heading, or descriptor. All relationships are defined with respect to the Preferred Term.

b. Variant Term
Variant Terms also known as entry terms or non-preferred terms, Variant Terms have been defined as equivalent to or loosely synonymous with the Preferred Term.

c. Broader Term
The Broader Term is the parent of the Preferred Term. It’s one level higher in the hierarchy.

d. Narrower Term
A Narrower Term is a child of the Preferred Term. It’s one level lower in the hierarchy.

e. Related Term
The Related Term is connected to the Preferred Term through the associative relationship. The relationship is often articulated through use of See Also.

f. Use
Traditional thesauri often employ the following syntax as a tool for indexers and users: Variant TermUse Preferred Term.

g. Used For
This indicates the reciprocal relationship of Preferred Term UF Variant Term(s). It’s used to show the full list of variants on the Preferred Term’s record.

h. Scope Note
The Scope Note is essentially a specific type of definition of the Preferred Term, used to deliberately restrict the meaning of that term in order to rule out ambiguity as much as possible.

Reference: Section 9.3. Technical Lingo – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

19. Consider the preferred term “car”. List a variant term(s), broader term, narrower term, and related term(s).
Preferred term: Car
Varient terms: Wagon, Sports Car
Narrower term: Mini Cooper
Broader terms: Automobile
Related terms: Motorbike, Road

20. Consider the preferred term “sword”. List a variant term(s), broader term, narrower term, and related term(s).
Preferred term: Sword
Varient terms: Spear, Dagger
Narrower term: Jon Starks sword, Long Claw
Broader terms: Weapon
Related terms: Gun, Poisen

21. Describe the three main types of thesauri and explain the circumstances under which you might consider using each type.
– Indexing Thesaurs
– Searching Thesaurs
– Classic Thesaurus

Reference: Section 9.5 Types of Thesauri – Information Architecture for the World Wid Web

22. What are uniterms? What are compound terms? Provide examples.

Compound terms:
Compound terms are words that consist of one or more words. For example firefly

23. What is meant by literary warrant and user warrant for term selection? What are the competing forces when selecting terms?

24. What is a parenthetical term qualifier? Provide parenthetical term qualifiers for the following:
a. Bat

b. Desert

c. Produce

d. Refuse

e. Tear

f. Wound

25. How do scope notes help with term definition?

26. What is polyhierarchy? Give two examples of polyhierarchy.
Polyhierarchy is a hierarchy where at least one entity has two independent superordinates.

Reference: Section 9.9 Polyhierarchy – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

27. What is faceted classification? What are the advantages and disadvantages when using faceted classification? Provide screen shots of two web sites that use a faceted classification scheme.

28. Describe the design consideration for using a controlled vocabulary.

29. Create a thesaurus for the dog breed classification system proposed in question 10.

30. Design a controlled vocabulary for your proposed Drupal web site


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